Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, individual correspondence)

Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, individual correspondence)

(20) The phrase to own ‘brother’, aha into the BT, have while doing so come enhanced, although this mode is additionally used in Turoyo. Hertevin enjoys each other ?aha and you may ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), but Mandaic has only aha (Macuch 1965, 495).

As well, exterior NENA, i’ve other terms: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)

(21) That instead mystical item that is attested in every NENA languages except Sanandaj Religious (and this most likely merely a spin pit in the evidence) are aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) contends that this term derives in the supply ql ‘to getting crooked’. Most of the dialects utilize the function aqla, except Koy Sanjaq aqla and you may Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.

(22) Some other keyword talked about from the Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty-two, 134) try baxta ‘woman’, that has supplanted the new Syriac atta throughout NENA, yet not during the Turoyo otherwise Mandaic. That it phrase appears to result from Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It’s fascinating to notice one to an unequal plural endures inside the numerous dialects: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you may Halabja inse.

(23) An unexpected advancement pointed out by Noldeke (1868, 59) are rxata, corresponding to Syriac rhat. The alteration from h to help you x inside one word is actually used in most of the NENA dialects the spot where the verb was attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi r-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).

(24) Another unexpected development ‘s the NENA verb ‘fear’, which takes new versions zda?a beneficial, zdaya, and you may zdala about various dialects. Macuch and Panoussi (1974, 50) bring a potential derivation in the Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Forms towards infixed d are located in every the fresh new NENA languages where in fact the supply try attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-fearing (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)

Not totally all of one’s determining top features of NENA are found either in Turoyo otherwise Mandaic

I do believe that a lot more than helps it be clear that the NENA dialects display a wide range of distinctive characteristics that are found neither in the earlier attested types of Aramaic neither about most other way of life languages. These characteristics diversity along the domain names regarding phonology, morphology, additionally the lexicon.

Specifically, most of the languages off NENA Nische Dating nur Bewertungen concur inside criteria dos, 9, fourteen, fifteen, 16, 21, and you will twenty-two. All the languages in which we have recommendations together with agree with criteria 20, 23, and you will twenty four.

Just about Halabja agree during the standards 8 and you may eleven. Traditional six is found in all of the dialects but Halabja, Hertevin, and you may Sanandaj Religious.

Despite the interior divisions, this new NENA languages means a strikingly defined category, split up clearly of one another Turoyo and Mandaic. The position of these languages beyond your NENA pale is beyond matter.

The degree that possess try mutual across NENA is particularly epic once we think about the tremendous differences between the various dialects. The latest determine away from almost every other languages towards NENA might have been one another strong and you can large, in addition to level of mutual intelligibility ranging from dialects can be hugely quick. Many common designs dispute strongly to have a familiar supply away from the latest NENA languages, in both just one dialect or perhaps in several directly relevant dialects. At the same time, we could detect several important packages of isoglosses and that represent this new limits off dialect communities.

a) The brand new dialect out-of Halabja does not share certain important innovations and that are found as a consequence of all remainder of the languages. It generally does not means a beneficial CCiC-le preterite of intransitive verbs (8), it offers no b(it)- future marker (10), and has no third individual just one copula that have step one (11). This can be the essential simple office between dialects away from NENA. This means that remaining languages setting a group by which designs pass on if you are Halabja remained unaffected by her or him.

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